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The marquis of Jin gave strange names to his sons

Years back, the wife of Mu, marquis of Jin (B. C. 811—84), a lady Jiang, gave birth to her eldest son, at the time of the expedition against Tiao, and on that account there was given him the name of Qiu (enemy). His brother was born at the time of the battle of Qianmou, and he got with reference to it the name of Chengshi (grand success). Shifu said, "How strange the names our lord has given to his sons! Now names should be definitions of what is right; the doing of what is right produces rules of what is proper; those rules again are embodied in the practice of government; and government has its issues in the rectification of the people. Therefore when government is completed in this way, the people are obedient; when this course is changed, it produces disorder. A good partner is called Fei (consort); a grumbling partner is called Qiu (enemy):—these are ancient designations. Now our lord has called his eldest son Enemy, and his second son Grand Success;—this is an early omen of disorder, as if the elder brother would be superseded."

In the 24th year of duke Hui of Lu (B. C. 744), Jin began to be in confusion, and the marquis Zhao [son of Qiu above] appointed Huanshu [his uncle, the above Chengshi] to Quwo, with Luan Bin, grandson of the marquis Jing, as his minister. Shifu said, "I have heard that in the setting up of States and clans, in order to the security of the parent State, while its root is large, the branches must be small. Therefore the son of Heaven establishes States; princes of States establish clans. Heads of clans establish collateral families; great officers have their secondary branches; officers have their sons and younger brothers as their servants; and the common people, mechanics and traders, have their different relatives of various degrees. In this way the people serve their superiors, and inferiors cherish no ambitious designs. Now Jin is a marquisate in the Dian  domain; and, establishing this State, can it continue long, its root so weak?

In the 30th year of duke Hui, Panfu killed the marquis Zhao, and endeavoured without success to establish Huanshu in Jin. The people of Jin appointed the marquis Xiao.

In the 45th year of duke Hui, Zhuang, earl of Quwo, attacked Yi, and murdered the marquis Xiao. The people of Jin set up his younger brother, the marquis E. E begat the marquis Ai. Ai overran the lands of Xingting, which were on his southern border, and so opened the way for Quwo to attack Yi.


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