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Duke Huan of Ch’i planned in private with Kuan Chung to attack Chü

Duke Huan of Ch’i planned in private with Kuan Chung to attack Chü, and yet the people knew of it. Duke Huan said to Kuan Chung, "I spoke to you alone, and yet the people know. Why is this?"

Kuan Chung said, "It seems to me that there is a sage in the country. Where is Tung-kuo Ya?"

Duke Huan looked around and said, "Here he is."

Kuan Chung said, "Did you tell it?"

Tung-kuo Ya said, "I did."

Kuan Chung said, "How did you know it?"

He said, "I have heard that the superior man has three aspects. From this I knew it."

Kuan Chung said, "What do you mean by three aspects?"

He said, "Pleased and happy —this is the musical aspect. Anxious and grieved—this is the aspect of mourning. Fierce and replete—this is the military aspect. From this I knew."

Kuan Chung said, "How did you know it was to be Chü?"

He replied, "His Highness pointed to the southeast. His mouth opened and did not close. His tongue was raised and did not fall. That is how I knew it was to be Chü."

Duke Huan approved. Master Tung-kuo said that the eyes are representative of the mind, and that words are the indicators of action. Now knowledge of men is not to be had for the asking. By regarding a man's demeanor, investigating his motives, and determining his choice, you will get to the bottom of his nature. The Ode says,

What other men have in their minds,
I can measure by reflection.

齐桓公独以管仲谋伐莒,而国人知之。桓公谓管仲曰:“寡人独为仲父言,而国人知之,何也?”管仲曰:“意若国中有圣人乎!今东郭牙安在?”桓公顾曰:“在此。”管仲曰:“子有言乎?”东郭牙曰:“然。”管仲曰:“子何以知之?”曰:“臣闻君子有三色,是以知之。”管仲曰:“何谓三色?”曰:“欢忻爱说,钟鼓之色也;愁悴哀忧,衰绖之色也;猛厉充实,兵革之色也。是以知之。”管仲曰:“何以知其莒也?”对曰:“君东南面而指,口张而不掩,舌举而不下,是以知其莒也。”桓公曰:“善。《诗》曰:‘他人有心,予忖度之。’”东郭先生曰:“目者、心之符也,言者、行之指也。夫知者之于人也,未尝求知而后能知也,观容貌,察气志,定取舍,而人情毕矣。”《诗》曰:“他人有心,予忖度之。”

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