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Duke Huan of Ch’i planned in private with Kuan Chung to attack Chü

Duke Huan of Ch’i planned in private with Kuan Chung to attack Chü, and yet the people knew of it. Duke Huan said to Kuan Chung, "I spoke to you alone, and yet the people know. Why is this?"

Kuan Chung said, "It seems to me that there is a sage in the country. Where is Tung-kuo Ya?"

Duke Huan looked around and said, "Here he is."

Kuan Chung said, "Did you tell it?"

Tung-kuo Ya said, "I did."

Kuan Chung said, "How did you know it?"

He said, "I have heard that the superior man has three aspects. From this I knew it."

Kuan Chung said, "What do you mean by three aspects?"

He said, "Pleased and happy —this is the musical aspect. Anxious and grieved—this is the aspect of mourning. Fierce and replete—this is the military aspect. From this I knew."

Kuan Chung said, "How did you know it was to be Chü?"

He replied, "His Highness pointed to the southeast. His mouth opened and did not close. His tongue was raised and did not fall. That is how I knew it was to be Chü."

Duke Huan approved. Master Tung-kuo said that the eyes are representative of the mind, and that words are the indicators of action. Now knowledge of men is not to be had for the asking. By regarding a man's demeanor, investigating his motives, and determining his choice, you will get to the bottom of his nature. The Ode says,

What other men have in their minds,
I can measure by reflection.



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