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Duke Wên of Chin thrice gave out rewards, but none reached T’ao Shu-hu.

There is the following traditional story: When Duke Wên of Chin had returned to his state from exile, he thrice gave out rewards, but none reached T’ao Shu-hu.
T’ao Shu-hu said to Uncle Fan, "I followed our prince into exile for eleven years until my complexion was burnt black and my hands and feet were covered with calluses. Now he has returned to his state and thrice has given out rewards, but nothing to me. Is it that the prince has forgotten me? Or am I greatly to blame? Would you try speaking on my behalf?"

Uncle Fan spoke about it to Duke Wên, who said, "Eh, how could it be that I have forgotten this man? Those who were greatly enlightened and most worthy, whose minds and conduct were perfect, who soothed me with the True Way and persuaded me with jên, who changed my conduct and made bright my fame, making me an accomplished person, to these I gave the highest reward. Those who treated me with respect according to the rites (li), who protected me with i, who guarded and assisted me so that I did not commit faults, to these I gave the next highest reward. Those who were brave, strong, and martial, who were forward and self-reliant, who, when there was trouble in front, placed themselves in front, and when the trouble was in the rear, placed themselves in the rear, rescuing me out of danger and difficulty, to these I gave the next highest reward. After them I put the gentlemen who merely endured hardship." The Ode says,

He himself followed the rules of conduct without error;
And then he saw that they were put into practice.

Now if one does not internally reflect on his own faults, he will not please the people; so what reward will there be for him?

传曰:晋文公尝出亡,反国,三行赏而不及陶叔狐。陶叔狐谓咎犯曰:“吾从而亡,十有一年,颜色黯黑,手足胼胝。今反国,三行赏,而我不与焉,君其忘我乎?其有大过乎?子试为我言之。”咎犯言之。文公曰:“噫!我岂忘是子哉!高明至贤,志行全成,湛我以道,说我以仁,变化我行,昭明我,使我为成人者,吾以为上赏。恭我以礼,防我以义,藩援我,使我不为非者,吾以为次。勇猛强武,气势自御,难在前则处在,难在后则处后,免我危难之中,吾以为次。然劳苦之士次之。《诗》曰:‘率履不越,遂视既发。’今不内自讼过,不悦百姓,将何锡之哉!”

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